Dental splinting is one of the methods in periodontal disease treatment, which allows reducing the probability of tooth loss (extraction).
Splinting is mainly required when a patient has loose teeth. Dental splinting is advisable to prevent re-inflammation in the periodontal tissues after the treatment when a patient suffers from chronic paradontitis.
Dentists use removable and fixed splints. Removable splints can be applied when some teeth are absent, creating good conditions for oral hygiene, and, if necessary, for therapy and surgery.
The advantages of fixed splints include the prevention of periodontal overload effects in either direction, the effect that cannot be reached using removable dentures.
The choice of split type depends on a number of parameters. If a person lacks special knowledge, the effectiveness of the treatment will be minimal.
Dental splints of various configurations are recommended in the following cases:
• Particulars of a periodontal disease.
• Oral hygiene, dental plaque.
• Bleeding gums, tooth mobility.
• Severity of periodontal pockets and the degree of root recession.
• Particulars of tooth location, the degree of displacement (dentition deformation).
The positive effects of splinting include the following:
• Dental splint reduces tooth mobility. Splint structural stiffness doesn’t allow tooth loosening and therefore reduces the risk of further tooth oscillation amplitude increase and tooth loss. I.e., teeth can move only so far as the splint allows.
• Splint effectiveness depends on the number of teeth. The more teeth a patient has, the greater the effect of splinting will be.
• Splinting redistributes the load on the teeth. The main masticatory stress will fall on healthy teeth. Loose teeth will be less susceptible to the stress, which provides additional effect when healing. The more healthy teeth the splinting will include, the more pronounced the relieving of mobile teeth will be. Therefore, if the majority of the teeth in the mouth are movable, the efficiency of the splint decreases.
• The best results are obtained by splinting the anterior teeth (incisors and canines), and the most effective splints will cover the greatest number of teeth.
• Because of less stable linear design, mobile molars splinting is performed symmetrically on both sides, bringing them to connect the two almost linear series. This design increases the splinting effect significantly. Other possible splinting options are considered depending on the nature of the disease.
Not all patients need fixed splints. A dentist takes into account the clinical picture of the disease, the state of oral hygiene, the presence of dental plaque, gum bleeding, the severity of periodontal pockets, the severity of tooth mobility, the nature of their displacement, etc.
Fixed splinting is absolutely necessary if a patient has pronounced tooth mobility combined with the atrophy of the alveolar process, which comprises no more than 1/4 the length of the tooth root. If a patient has more severe changes, a patient needs oral cavity inflammatory treatment first.
The choice of a concrete splint depends on the severity of the alveolar process atrophy, the degree of tooth mobility, tooth location, etc. Thus, in the cases of severe mobility and atrophy of bony process up to 1/3 of the tooth depth, fixed prostheses are recommended, in more severe cases the use of both removable and fixed prostheses is possible.
When determining whether splinting is needed, it is very important to have oral cavity sanation: dental treatment, inflammatory changes treatment, dental plaque removal and even tooth extraction if imperative. All this provides the best chances for successful splinting.
The splints must have the following properties:
• limit tooth mobility in all directions as much as possible;
• firmly attach to the teeth;
• not injure surrounding tissue;
• not interfere with other forms of treatment;
• not interfere with oral care;
• not disturb the patient's appearance, speech, eating, etc. if possible.
Maryland bridge adhesive splinting
Adhesive splinting procedure is carried out in one visit. There is no need to remove dental tissues, the splint is securely stabilized for a long time, the construction color meets the aesthetic requirements of the patient, is small and does not cause discomfort, the gaps between the teeth remain open, which is important for the health of the mouth and teeth. If a tooth alignment is flawed, adhesive splints can hold an artificial tooth in the adhesive bridge. The specialists of the Clinic use a specially reinforced (fiberglass) fiber, which makes it possible to achieve the best result of splinting.
The advantage of the adhesive dental splints:
• Simple, easily understandable concept.
• Quite easy and fast technique.
• The procedure is performed during one visit, which means significant time saving compared to some alternatives.
• No need to grind away tooth structure considerably.
• Tooth color meets aesthetic needs of most patients.
• Inexpensive compared to most alternatives.
• Acceptable strength due to good bond between the fiber and the composite.
• Good clinical longevity.
• Easy removal.