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Periodontal diseases.

Periodontium refers to the tissue surrounding the tooth: gum, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone. Few people know that the main cause of periodontal diseases is periodontitis blood supply disturbance. There are numerous causes for the disturbance because any disorder in the body affects blood vessels.

What is paradontosis?

Paradontosis is degenerative changes in the tissues surrounding the tooth.
The gum becomes pale, its tissues are gradually replaced with a cartilage, which does not require as many nutrients. Sometimes vessels become so narrow that even a cartilage cannot remain viable. Then tophi begin to form in the gums, and you can even hear the gum crunch. What about the tooth? As a rule, patients with periodontal disease don't suffer from tooth decay. They lose their teeth for other reasons: a perfectly healthy tooth, bereft of its "ground", comes out.

Paradontosis per se is quite rare (only 2–6% of people suffering from periodontal diseases are diagnose with it). Usually it is closely connected with another disease, periodontitis.

What is periodontitis?
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding the tooth characterized by progressive destruction of alveolar bone around the teeth.
 
"Pure" periodontitis also occurs in 2–6% of patients. But in different combinations periodontal disease is so common that there are practically no people with healthy gums in our country.
 
Silent tooth killers
So, it ends in tooth loss. And how does it all start? It starts with a banal dental bleeding and dental plaque and tartar, with the microorganisms living under the depositions. Of course, our body fights against microorganisms, sending an army of white blood cells, which swallow and eat bacteria, to the infection site. These battles are not visible to us, but if you don't treat the disease, teeth become loose and come out.

Gum bleeding
The earliest sign of periodontal disease is gum bleeding, or, to be more precise, gingivitis.
Gingivitis is a gum inflammation accompanied by swelling, redness and bleeding. Gingivitis is a fairly common disease. There are acute, chronic and recurrent stages of the disease.

The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene, resulting in the formation of dental plaque (the colonies of microorganisms, adherent to the tooth surface). Gingivitis is also caused by such factors as the occlusion pathology, tartar (calcified plaque), food debris, poor tooth fillings, mouth breathing.

Gingivitis is common in teenagers and pregnant women. These patients usually suffer severely from the disease due to the body hormonal changes.

Gingivitis can also be a sign of a systemic disease (e.g., herpes, allergies, vitamin deficiency, leukopenia, debilitating disease, diabetes).

When a person suffers from gingivitis, their gums become inflamed, swollen and their contour changes. Swelling causes the deepening of a gingival sulcus between the tooth and gum, and a so-called pocket appears. As a result, a patient experiences the following symptoms: gum margin redness, gum swelling and bleeding, gum sensitivity and painfulness, difficulty in chewing and swallowing.

So a lot of people, being afraid of damaging delicate, sensitive teeth, try to reduce tooth cleaning time and switch to a softer brush. You mustn't do it! On the contrary, you should buy a toothbrush with hard nylon bristle and increase the cleaning time. At the same time it is advisable to choose a special paste with antibacterial additives for bleeding gums.

Gum massage can restore faulty blood flow, whereas intensive cleaning will not allow plaque to accumulate. These seemingly simple and easy tips have turned out to take both children and adults a long time to learn how to brush their teeth properly. If you think it's easy, you are wrong.

There is only one way to learn how to brush your teeth properly – you should visit a doctor, who specializes in dental hygiene. A hygienist applies a tooth dye that colors the plaque, but does not color the enamel. A patient should get rid of the dye glancing from time to time in the mirror. One procedure is not enough. It should be done for quite a long time, about a month, to form a conditioned reflex to put a hand with a toothbrush into the correct position, and to form proper tooth-brushing skills.

Periodontal disease treatment
Periodontal disease should be treated only by a dentist. The essence of the treatment is the impact on dental plaque and the removal of local and systemic predisposing factors.

First of all, you need to follow oral hygiene recommendations carefully. A doctor will provide you with all the necessary recommendations.

In addition, dentists often resort to special tools not only to treat the acute phase of the disease, but also in order to slow down or stop the development of serious complications.

Specialists use a variety of drugs: antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, local immunocorrectors.

Sometimes the treatment requires a significant medical intervention: careful removal of tartar (using mechanical tools or ultrasound), replacement and polishing of the fillings hanging over the gums or of poorly adjusted fillings, Vector-therapy.

Vector-therapy is a powerful tool of a periodontist.

In some cases patients need surgical intervention - curettage. During the curettage a doctor removes dental plaque with special hooks, excavators, curettes (non-surgical debridement) or cuts the gums (surgical debridement).

Dealing with infectious and inflammatory processes it is necessary to eliminate the infectious agent. Therefore, a doctor may prescribe antibacterial or antifungal agents.

Gingivitis often indicates a decline in host defenses. Therefore, treatment should be aimed not only at eliminating the inflammatory process, but also at immunity improvement. In this case it’s best to use immune correctors. The drugs belonging to this group activate oral mucosa defenses. Acting through immunological mechanisms, immune correctors contribute to the increase of the phagocytic activity (phagocytosis is the capture and neutralization of bacterial cells of the immune system), increase the levels of specials saliva enzyme - lysozyme, known for its bactericidal activity, stimulation and increase of the number of immune cells responsible for antibodies production.

Prevention
To prevent gingivitis you should follow the following simple rules:
•    Visit a dentist regularly.
•    Remove dental plaque using toothpaste and dental floss every day.
•    Have your teeth brushed by a professional every 3–6 months.

Prognosis
Uncomplicated gingivitis usually ends in 7–10 days, whereas chronic gingivitis requires intensive treatment. If gingivitis is neglected, it can lead to the development of periodontal disease and tooth loss (gingivitis is an even more common cause of tooth loss than tooth decay).

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