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Crowns, bridges.

Dental crowns are the "caps" that imitate the tooth's shape. Dental crowns cap and encircle teeth, reconstructing their shape, size and durability, making them look more attractive. The crowns are bonded to the tooth using dental cement, hiding the visible part of the tooth below and above the gum line.

What dental crowns are designed for?
Crowns are needed in the following situations:
•    To prevent a "weak" tooth from chipping (for example, when a tooth is destroyed by tooth decay) or to keep together the parts of a fractured tooth;
•    To restore a chipped or a heavily worn-out tooth;
•    To cap and strengthen a tooth with a large filling (when natural tooth structure is hardly left);
•    To retain a bridge-like prosthesis;
•    To cap a deformed or discolored tooth;
•    To cap a dental implant.

Which materials are used in dental crown fabrication? Dental crowns can be all-metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal, photocomposite or all-ceramic.

All-metal crowns
All-metal crowns are fabricated from gold alloys, palladium alloys, or alloys composed of base metals (for example, nickel or chrome). The use of metal crowns makes it possible to grind less natural dental structure away (unlike crowns fabricated from other materials), and they also won't create excessive wear on the teeth that oppose them. Metal crowns are very strong and can be expected to withstand even the heaviest biting and chewing forces well. The main disadvantage of metal crowns is their "metallic" color. These crowns make a great choice for some molars, especially bottom ones.

Porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns
Unlike metal crowns, porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns imitate the exact color of the adjacent teeth. This crown looks almost like a natural tooth (only all-ceramic crowns have a more tooth-like appearance). Nevertheless, the metal that lies underneath the crown's porcelain can sometimes be visualized as a dark line found right at the crown's edge (this disadvantage becomes even more pronounced if a person's gums happen to recede). These crowns can be a good choice for either front or back teeth restorations.

Plastic crowns
Plastic crowns are the cheapest of all the tooth crowns. But they are less durable and run a higher risk of chipping and snapping off than porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns. They are used as temporary crowns.

Metal-free ceramic crowns
Metal-free ceramic crowns can allow for the natural tooth tissue imitation and super-aesthetic artistic tooth restorations. Metal-free ceramics include all-ceramic crowns, aluminum oxide crowns, zirconium oxide crowns. Metal-free ceramics has a number of advantages, which is why it is widely used in aesthetic dentistry.

Fixed dental bridges
If you have lost some of your teeth as a result of an accident or an illness, the gap created by the missing teeth should be replaced with a dental bridge. Dental bridges are used only when there are adjacent teeth on both sides of the gap created by the missing teeth. These teeth serve as anchors for the bridge. The abutment teeth are reduced and are capped by the crowns. The crowns anchor a pontic, i.e. a false tooth/teeth.

What types of fixed dental bridges are available?
Fixed dental bridges are fabricated from metal, partially veneered with ceramics. The parts of a dental bridge are covered with ceramics depending on your wish on the one hand, and on your financial resources on the other. There are numerous technical solutions on how to fabricate a dental bridge. Your doctor will help you to make the best choice when choosing a dental bridge, taking into account you individual dental problems.  

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